You can read the Introduction of this chapter here.
Well second post about creating your first website, not that bad, eh (the force is strong with this one)! So let’s get started then. I would like to start this with:
What is a web browser?
Well you gotta have something to open up and ‘browse’ the website you just created, right?Browsers open up the entire world of internet to us. Examples: Internet Explorer, Chrome, Mozilla Firefox.
URL or Uniform Resource Locator is the address which we type in the address bar to access any data out there in the internet, let’s take an example: http://www.google.com. URL contains (this is what URL is made up of):
- Protocol to be used like http, ftp. Not saying have never heard of http because I do see it every time I google something or I’m using any website
- Domain name or IP address
- The path and optional fragment identifier
Let’s see all of these in a bit detail (just a bit detail so we would at least know what they’re, I have no intention of becoming a URL prodigy).
Computer Protocols: There’re many kind of protocols such as FTP, HTTP, SMTP, TCP/IP, POP, UDP. For you to understand me I must speak in a language which you understand (else I could’ve written hokus pokus brokus and claimed this is all you need to understand to create a website), the same is with computers and since they’re dumber than we can imagine, we have got to define everything for them like what we’re sending and what it should expect next or has it missed anything which we’ve sent. This is why we need a protocol. HTTP, I guess is something relevant to us (I might be wrong, I’m only human). HTML(stands for HyperText Markup Language) is something we often use to create a webpage(we should consider HTML for our website as well then) and these pages are transmitted over the internet using a standard format known as HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol). Another format related to HTTP is HTTPS which provides encryption for more transfer of sensitive data.
Domain Name or IP address: IP stands for Internet Protocol. When I first heard the word ‘Protocol’, which was back in 8th standard I’m guessing, I freaked out a bit. It sounded so ‘hi-tech’ to me I thought it might be something NASA works a lot in. Probably people who aren’t a native English speaker and have an average knowledge of English could relate to this. Later I found out protocol is just set of rules. I’m not saying I wasn’t disappointed in myself that I didn’t know what protocol meant or I’m studying nothing groundbreaking. So dear friend, IP is nothing near to any sort of rocket science, it’s just another set of rules which decides the format of data sent over the internet and IP address is the address of the computers and devices on a network. So based on this IP address, the data will be routed on the network. But there’s a twist in the story. We don’t use numbers to find resources and machines, obviously, because I’ve never typed, let’s say, 220.127.116.11, to access Facebook. But what I’ve typed is facebook.com, right? This name ‘facebook.com’ is actually associated with number so when a name is typed, the computer uses Domain Name System (DNS) to look up the associated number which it will then use to get in contact with the desired server.